Automobile Windshield


Glass is a versatile material with hundreds of applications, including windshields. Glass has a long history and was first made more than 7,000 years ago in Egypt, as early as 3,000 B.C. Glass is found in a natural state as a by-product of volcanic activity. Today, glass is manufactured from a variety of ceramic materials (main components are oxides). The main product categories are flat or float glass, container glass, cut glass, fiberglass, optical glass, and specialty glass. Automotive windshields fall into the flat glass category.

There are more than 80 companies worldwide that produce automotive glass, including windshields. Major producers in the United States include PPG, Guardian Industries Corp., and Libby-Owens Ford. According to the Department of Commerce, 25 percent of flat glass production is consumed by the automotive industry (including windows) at a total value of approximately $483 million. In Japan, 30 percent of flat glass goes to the automotive industry, valued at around $190 billion in 1989. Major Japanese flat glass manufacturers include Asahi Glass Co., Central Glass Co., and Nippon Sheet Glass Co. Little growth is expected for the flat glass industry overall in both countries. Germany has a more positive outlook, with high growth rates expected from the automotive industry.

Glass windshields first appeared around 1905 with the invention of safety glass—glass tempered (tempering is a heat treatment) to make it especially hard and resistant to shattering. This type of windshield was popular well into the middle of the century, but it was eventually replaced by windshields made of laminated glass—a multilayer unit consisting of a plastic layer surrounded by two sheets of glass. In many countries, including the U.S., auto windshields are required by law to be made of laminated glass. Laminated glass can bend slightly under impact and is less likely to shatter than normal safety glass. This quality reduces the risk of injury to the automobile's passengers.

Raw Materials

Glass is composed of numerous oxides that fuse and react together upon heating to form a glass. These include silica (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O), and calcium oxide (CaO). Raw materials from which these materials are derived are sand, soda ash (Na 2 CO 3 ), and limestone (CaCO 3 ). Soda ash acts as a flux; in other words, it lowers the melting point of the batch composition. Lime is added to the batch in order to improve the hardness and chemical durability of the glass. Glass used for windshields also usually contains several other oxides: potassium oxide (K 2 O derived from potash), magnesium oxide (MgO), and aluminum oxide (AI 2 O 3 derived from feldspar).

The Manufacturing

Cutting and tempering

A finished windshield consists of two glass layers sandwiched around a plastic interlayer. Although very thin—about .25 inch thick—such laminated glass is very strong and is less likely to shatter than normal safety glass. In the United States, windshields are required by law to be made of laminated glass.
A finished windshield consists of two glass layers sandwiched around a plastic interlayer. Although very thin—about .25 inch thick—such laminated glass is very strong and is less likely to shatter than normal safety glass. In the United States, windshields are required by law to be made of laminated glass.



Quality Control

Process control includes testing of raw materials and monitoring such process variables as melting temperature, furnace atmosphere, and glass level. As the glass is formed, photoelectric devices are used to inspect for defects automatically. Other automatic devices have been developed to measure dimensions and radius of curvature after the windshield has been formed.

Safety glass used in windshields must meet certain specifications regarding properties such as chemical durability, impact resistance, and strength. Standards have been developed by the American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) for measuring these properties. Specifications have also been developed for windshield performance by SAE International, an organization of automotive engineers.

The Future

Despite the recent downturn in the automotive industry, long-term prospects are more optimistic. Motor vehicle production markets will be stronger than in recent years, raising demand for flat glass products such as windshields. Windshields are also increasing in size in order to accommodate newer aerodynamic designs, and thus the use of glass is increasing relative to the total surface area of vehicles. (In fact, some models are incorporating glass roofs as well.)

Such increase in glass area, in turn, has a negative impact on comfort systems, namely air conditioners, which must be able to adjust the higher interior temperatures to a comfortable level. To avoid having to use larger air conditioning systems, new glass compositions, coated glasses, and aftermarket films are being evaluated. These include angle-selective glazings that reject high-angle sun, and optical switching films that actively or passively change transmittance properties.

One recently developed film, a polymer multilayer solar control film, can also act as a deicing device. The coated plastic substrate simply replaces the laminated plastic film in conventional windshields. The film can be made in any color and can transmit up to 90 percent of the visible light. Another coating is a glaze that consists of silver coating used in combination with other metal oxide layers. This glaze can reject up to 60 percent of the total solar energy, reducing the infrared energy by 56 percent.

In addition, new types of laminated-glass windshields are being researched. A bi-layer windshield has been developed that only requires one outer sheet of glass, .08 to .16 of an inch (2-4 millimeters) thick, joined to a .254 of an inch (1 millimeter) sheet of polyurethane. The polyurethane sheet consists of two layers, one having high absorption properties and the other high surface resistance. Unique features of this bi-layer windshield include ultraviolet resistance, self-healing of scratches, weight savings, more complex shapes, increased safety due to retention of glass splinters, and anti-fog capability.

Recycling of windshield components may also become a standard practice. Though traditionally recycling has been difficult because of the plastic laminated films, one manufacturer has recently developed a cost-effective process to remove these layers. The recycled glass can be used in several applications, including glassphalt for road repair. Legislation may also speed up recycling practices, with the introduction of the Municipal Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Research Act of 1992. This bill seeks to determine the obstacles to increased automotive components recycling and find ways to overcome these obstacles. This may eventually require using fewer resins during manufacturing or making sure these resins are compatible for recycling.

Where To Learn More


McLellan, George W. and E. B. Shand, eds. Glass Engineering Handbook. 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1984.

Pfaender, Heinz G. and Hubert Schroeder. Schott Guide To Glass. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983.

Scholes, Samuel R. Modern Glass Practice. CBI Publishing Company, 1975.


"Bill To Overcome Recycling Obstacles," Autoglass. July/August, 1992.

"Guardian Produces Largest Production Car Windshield," Autoglass, March/April, 1992.

Leventon, William. "Press and Vacuum Form Complex Windshields," Design News. November 9, 1992, p. 159.

Olosky, M. L. and M. J. Watson. "Silicon Film Adhesives: Bonding Automotive Fixtures to Glass," SAE Paper No. 931013. SAE International, 1993.

Peters, G. M. and T. W. Karwan, et al. "A Cost Effective Quality Improvement for Automotive Glass Encapsulation," SAE Paper No. 931012. SAE International, 1993.

Sheppard, L. M. "Automotive Performance Accelerate with Ceramics," Ceramic Bulletin. 1990, pp. 1012-1021.

L. S. Millberg

User Contributions:

Bosse Wigrell
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Mar 1, 2006 @ 12:00 am
The thickness dimensions in the illustration above "Laminating" and in the text below "Laminating" are switched. I suppose the ones in the illustration are correct.

Bosse ;-)}
Justin Gasal
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Apr 26, 2006 @ 8:08 am
In the section called, "The Future", when writing about the bi-layer windshield, the plastic layer is described as ".254 of an inch (1 millimeter)" thick. 1 mm is equal to .039 inches, not .254.
Mohammed Saleh
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Dec 8, 2013 @ 12:12 pm
What do the numbers written on car windshield signify?
Cliff Veach
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Jul 18, 2018 @ 11:11 am
Is there a straight forward manner to calculate the height required to shatter a windshield if dropping a weighted object? If I was to drop a 10 pound metal object onto a standard GM sedan windshield, how high would I have to be above the vehicle for the weight to shatter the windshield into the typical start/spider web pattern and separate the glass layers but not go through the glass completely?

Also other options to calculate force required for a falling object onto a windshield to cause major damage but not penetration. Thanks

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