An escalator is a power-driven, continuous moving stairway designed to transport passengers up and down short vertical distances. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include shopping centers, airports, transit systems, trade centers, hotels, and public buildings. The benefits of escalators are many. They have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as stairs would be. They have no waiting interval, except during very heavy traffic; they can be used to guide people towards main exits or special exhibits; and they may be weather-proofed for outdoor use. It is estimated that there are over 30,000 escalators in the United States, and that there are 90 billion riders traveling on escalators each year. Escalators and their cousins, moving walkways, are powered by constant speed alternating current motors and move at approximately 1-2 ft (0.3-0.6 m) per second. The maximum angle of inclination of an escalator to the horizontal is 30 degrees with a standard rise up to about 60 ft (18 m).
The invention of the escalator is generally credited to Charles D. Seeberger who, as an employee of the Otis Elevator Company, produced the first step-type escalator manufactured for use by the general public. His creation was installed at the Paris Exhibition of 1900, where it won first prize. Seeberger also coined the term escalator by joining scala, which is Latin for steps, with a diminutive form of "elevator." In 1910 Seeberger sold the original patent rights for his invention to the Otis Elevator Company. Although numerous improvements have been made, Seeberger's basic design remains in use today. It consists of top and bottom landing platforms connected by a metal truss. The truss contains two tracks, which pull a collapsible staircase through an endless loop. The truss also supports two handrails, which are coordinated to move at the same speed as the step treads.
Top and bottom landing platforms
These two platforms house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs. The top platform contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. These sections also anchor the ends of the escalator truss. In addition, the platforms contain a floor plate and a comb plate. The floor plate provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs. This plate is flush with the finished floor and is either hinged or removable to allow easy access to the machinery below. The comb plate is the piece between the stationary floor plate and the moving step. It is so named because its edge has a series of cleats that resemble the teeth of a comb. These teeth mesh with matching cleats on the edges of the steps. This design is necessary to minimize the gap between the stair and the landing, which helps prevent objects from getting caught in the gap.
The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. It is composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top. The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections.
The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop. There are actually two tracks: one for the front wheels of the steps (called the step-wheel track) and one for the back wheels of the steps (called the trailer-wheel track). The relative positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the comb plate. Along the straight section of the truss the tracks are at their maximum distance apart. This configuration forces the back of one step to be at a 90-degree angle relative to the step behind it. This right angle bends the steps into a stair shape. At the top and bottom of the escalator, the two tracks converge so that the front and back wheels of the steps are almost in a straight line. This causes the stairs to lay in a flat sheet-like arrangement, one after another, so they can easily travel around the bend in the curved section of track. The tracks carry the steps down along the underside of the truss until they reach the bottom landing, where they pass through another curved section of track before exiting the bottom landing. At this point the tracks separate and the steps once again assume a stair case configuration. This cycle is repeated continually as the steps are pulled from bottom to top and back to the bottom again.
The steps themselves are solid, one-piece, die-cast aluminum. Rubber mats may be affixed to their surface to reduce slippage, and yellow demarcation lines may be added to clearly indicate their edges. The leading and trailing edges of each step are cleated with comb-like protrusions that mesh with the comb plates on the top and bottom platforms. The steps are linked by a continuous metal chain so they form a closed loop with each step able to bend in relation to its neighbors. The front and back edges of the steps are each connected to two wheels. The rear wheels are set further apart to fit into the back track and the front wheels have shorter axles to fit into the narrower front track. As described above, the position of the tracks controls the orientation of the steps.
The railing provides a convenient handhold for passengers while they are riding the escalator. It is constructed of four distinct sections. At the center of the railing is a "slider," also known as a "glider ply," which is a layer of a cotton or synthetic textile. The purpose of the slider layer is to allow the railing to move smoothly along its track. The next layer, known as the tension member, consists of either steel cable or flat steel tape. It provides the handrail with the necessary tensile strength and flexibility. On top of tension member are the inner construction components, which are made of chemically treated rubber designed to prevent the layers from separating. Finally, the outer layer, the only part that passengers actually see, is the rubber cover, which is a blend of synthetic polymers and rubber. This cover is designed to resist degradation from environmental conditions, mechanical wear and tear, and human vandalism. The railing is constructed by feeding rubber through a computer controlled extrusion machine to produce layers of the required size and type in order to match specific orders. The component layers of fabric, rubber, and steel are shaped by skilled workers before being fed into the presses, where they are fused together. When installed, the finished railing is pulled along its track by a chain that is connected to the main drive gear by a series of pulleys.
A number of factors affect escalator design, including physical requirements, location, traffic patterns, safety considerations, and aesthetic preferences. Foremost, physical factors like the vertical and horizontal distance to be spanned must be considered. These factors will determine the pitch of the escalator and its actual length. The ability of the building infrastructure to support the heavy components is also a critical physical concern. Location is important because escalators should be situated where they can be easily seen by the general public. In department stores, customers should be able to view the merchandise easily. Furthermore, up and down escalator traffic should be physically separated and should not lead into confined spaces.
Traffic patterns must also be anticipated in escalator design. In some buildings the objective is simply to move people from one floor to another, but in others there may be a more specific requirement, such as funneling visitors towards a main exit or exhibit. The number of passengers is important because escalators are designed to carry a certain maximum number of people. For example, a single width escalator traveling at about 1.5 feet (0.45 m) per second can move an estimated 170 persons per five-minute period. Wider models traveling at up to 2 feet (0.6 m) per second can handle as many as 450 people in the same time period. The carrying capacity of an escalator must match the expected peak traffic demand. This is crucial for applications in which there are sudden increases in the number of passengers. For example, escalators used in train stations must be designed to cater for the peak traffic flow discharged from a train, without causing excessive bunching at the escalator entrance.
Of course, safety is also major concern in escalator design. Fire protection of an escalator floor-opening may be provided by adding automatic sprinklers or fireproof shutters to the opening, or by installing the escalator in an enclosed fire-protected hall. To limit the danger of overheating, adequate ventilation for the spaces that contain the motors and gears must be provided. It is preferred that a traditional staircase be located adjacent to the escalator if the escalator is the primary means of transport between floors. It may also be necessary to provide an elevator lift adjacent to an escalator for wheelchairs and disabled persons. Finally, consideration should be given to the aesthetics of the escalator. The architects and designers can choose from a wide range of styles and colors for the handrails and tinted side panels.
- The first stage of escalator construction is to establish the design, as described above. The escalator manufacturer uses this information to construct the appropriately customized equipment. There are two types of companies that supply escalators, primary manufacturers who actually build the equipment, and secondary suppliers that design and install the equipment. In most cases, the secondary suppliers obtain the necessary equipment from the primary manufacturers and make necessary modifications for installation. Therefore, most escalators are actually assembled at the primary manufacturer. The tracks, step chains, stair assembly, and motorized gears and pulleys are all bolted into place on the truss before shipping.
- Prior to installation, the landing areas must be prepared to connect to the escalator. For example, concrete fittings must be poured, and the steel framework that will hold the truss in place must be attached. After the escalator is delivered, the entire assembly is uncrated and jockeyed into position between the top and bottom landing holes. There are a variety of methods for lifting the truss assembly into place, one of which is a scissors lift apparatus mounted on a wheeled support platform. The scissors lift is outfitted with a locator assembly to aid in vertical and angular alignment of the escalator. With such a device, the upper end of the truss can be easily aligned with and then supported by a support wall associated with the upper landing. The lower end of the truss can be subsequently lowered into a pit associated with the floor of the lower landing. In some cases, the railings may be shipped separately from the rest of the equipment. In such a situation, they are carefully coiled and packed for shipping. They are then connected to the appropriate chains after the escalator is installed.
- Make final connections for the power source and check to ensure all tracks and chains are properly aligned.
Verify all motorized elements are functioning properly, that the belts
The Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) contains guidelines for escalator quality control and establishes minimum inspection standards. As stated in the code, "elevators and escalators shall be thoroughly inspected at intervals not exceeding one year. Additional monthly inspections for satisfactory operation shall be conducted by designated persons." Records of the annual inspections are to be posted near the escalator or be available at the terminal. In addition, the code specifies that the escalator's maximum load limits shall be posted and not exceeded. Additional safety standards can also be found in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Handbook.
Several innovations in escalator manufacture have been made in recent years. For example, one company recently developed a spiral staircase escalator. Another has developed an escalator suitable for transporting wheelchairs. Such advances are likely to continue as the industry expands to meet the changing needs of the marketplace. In addition, the industry is expecting a growth spurt as untapped markets such as China and Hungary begin to recognize the benefits of escalator technology.
Where to Learn More
Barney, G.C., ed. Elevator Technology. Ellis Horwood, 1986.
Taninecz, George. "Schindler Elevator Corp." Industry Week, October 21, 1996, p. 54.
— Randy Schueller