Artificial Limb

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Artificial arms and legs, or prostheses, are intended to restore a degree of normal function to amputees. Mechanical devices that allow amputees to walk again or continue to use two hands have probably been in use since ancient times, the most notable one being the simple peg leg. Surgical procedure for amputation, however, was not largely successful until around 600 B.C. Armorers of the Middle Ages created the first sophisticated prostheses, using strong, heavy, inflexible iron to make limbs that the amputee could scarcely control. Even with the articulated joints invented by Ambroise Paré in the 1500s, the amputee could not flex at will. Artificial hands of the time were quite beautiful and intricate imitations of real hands, but were not exceptionally functional. Upper limbs, developed by Peter Baliff of Berlin in 1812 for below-elbow amputees and Van Peetersen in 1844 for above-elbow amputees, were functional, but still far less than ideal.

The nineteenth century saw a lot of changes, most initiated by amputees themselves. J. E. Hanger, an engineering student, lost his leg in the Civil War. He subsequently designed an artificial leg for himself and in 1861 founded a company to manufacture prosthetic legs. The J. E. Hanger Company is still in existence today. Another amputee named A. A. Winkley developed a slip-socket below-knee device for himself, and with the help of Lowell Jepson, founded the Winkley Company in 1888. They marketed the legs during the National Civil War Veterans Reunion, thereby establishing their company.

Another amputee named D. W. Dorrance invented a terminal device to be used in the place of a hand in 1909. Dorrance, who had lost his right arm in an accident, was unhappy with the prosthetic arms then available. Until his invention, they had consisted of a leather socket and a heavy steel frame, and either had a heavy cosmetic hand in a glove, a rudimentary mechanical hand, or a passive hook incapable of prehension. Dorrance invented a split hook that was anchored to the opposite shoulder and could be opened with a strap across the back and closed by rubber bands. His terminal device (the hook) is still considered to be a major advancement for amputees because it restored their prehension abilities to some extent. Modified hooks are still used today, though they might be hidden by realistic-looking skin.

The twentieth century has seen the greatest advances in prosthetic limbs. Materials such as modern plastics have yielded prosthetic devices that are strong and more lightweight than earlier limbs made of iron and wood. New plastics, better pigments, and more sophisticated procedures are responsible for creating fairly realistic-looking skin.

The most exciting development of the twentieth century has been the development of myoelectric prosthetic limbs. Myoelectricity involves using electrical signals from the patient's arm muscles to move the limb. Research began in the late 1940s in West Germany, and by the late sixties myoelectric devices were available for adults. In the last decade children have also been fitted with myoelectric limbs.

In recent years computers have been used to help fit amputees with prosthetic limbs. Eighty-five percent of private prosthetic facilities use a CAD/CAM to design a model

After a plaster cost of the amputee's stump is made, a thermoplastic sheet is vacuum-formed around this cast to form a test socket. In vacuum-forming, the plastic sheet is heated and then placed in a vacuum chamber with the cost (or mold). As the air is sucked out of the chamber, the plastic adheres to the cast and assumes its shape. After testing, the permanent socket is formed in the some way.
After a plaster cost of the amputee's stump is made, a thermoplastic sheet is vacuum-formed around this cast to form a test socket. In vacuum-forming, the plastic sheet is heated and then placed in a vacuum chamber with the cost (or mold). As the air is sucked out of the chamber, the plastic adheres to the cast and assumes its shape. After testing, the permanent socket is formed in the some way.
of the patient's arm or leg, which can be used to prepare a mold from which the new limb can be shaped. Laser-guided measuring and fitting is also available.

Raw Materials

The typical prosthetic device consists of a custom fitted socket, an internal structure (also called a pylon), knee cuffs and belts that attach it to the body, prosthetic socks that cushion the area of contact, and, in some cases, realistic-looking skin. Prosthetic limb manufacture is currently undergoing changes on many levels, some of which concern the choice of materials.

A prosthetic device should most of all be lightweight; hence, much of it is made from plastic. The socket is usually made from polypropylene. Lightweight metals such as titanium and aluminum have replaced much of the steel in the pylon. Alloys of these materials are most frequently used. The newest development in prosthesis manufacture has been the use of carbon fiber to form a lightweight pylon.

Certain parts of the limb (for example, the feet) have traditionally been made of wood (such as maple, hickory basswood, willow, poplar, and linden) and rubber. Even today the feet are made from urethane foam with a wooden inner keel construction. Other materials commonly used are plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylics, and polyurethane. Prosthetic socks are made from a number of soft yet strong fabrics. Earlier socks were made of wool, as are some modern ones, which can also be made of cotton or various synthetic materials.

Physical appearance of the prosthetic limb is important to the amputee. The majority of endoskeletal prostheses (pylons) are covered with a soft polyurethane foam cover that has been designed to match the shape of the patient's sound limb. This foam cover is then covered with a sock or artificial skin that is painted to match the patient's skin color.

The Manufacturing

Prosthetic limbs are not mass-produced to be sold in stores. Similar to the way dentures or eyeglasses are procured, prosthetic limbs are first prescribed by a medical doctor, usually after consultation with the amputee, a prosthetist, and a physical therapist. The patient then visits the prosthetist to be fitted with a limb. Although some parts—the socket, for instance—are custom-made, many parts (feet, pylons) are manufactured in a factory, sent to the prosthetist, and assembled at the prosthetist's facility in accordance with the patient's needs. At a few facilities, the limbs are custom made from start to finish.

Measuring and casting

Making the socket

Fabrication of the prosthesis

Physical Therapy

Once the prosthetic limb has been fitted, it is necessary for the patient to become comfortable with the device and learn to use it in order to meet the challenges of everyday life. At the same time, they must learn special exercises that strengthen the muscles used to move the prosthetic device. When the patient has been fitted with a myoelectric device, it is sometimes true that the muscles are too weak to effectively signal the device, so again the muscles are exercised to strengthen them. Some new amputees are trained to wash the devices—including the socks—daily, and to practice getting them on and off.

A patient fitted with an artificial arm must learn to use the arm and its locking device as well as the hand. If the amputee lost an arm due to an accident and is subsequently fitted with a myoelectric device, this is relatively easy. If the loss of the limb is congenital, this is difficult. An instruction system has been developed to teach amputees how to accomplish many small tasks using only one hand.

Some patients fitted with an artificial leg also undergo physical therapy. It typically takes a new amputee 18-20 weeks to learn how to walk again. Patients also learn how to get in and out of bed and how to get in and out of a car. They learn how to walk up and down hill, and how to fall down and get up safely.

Quality Control

No standards exist for prosthetic limbs in the United States. Some manufacturers advocate instituting those of the International Standards Organization of Europe, particularly because U.S. exporters of prosthetic limbs to Europe must conform to them anyway. Others believe these regulations to be confusing and unrealistic; they would rather see the United States produce their own, more reasonable standards.

Lack of standards does not mean that prosthetic limb manufacturers have not come up with ways to test their products. Some tests evaluate the strength and lifetime of the device. For instance, static loads test strength. A load is applied over a period of 30 seconds, held for 20 seconds, then removed over a period of 30 seconds. The limb should suffer no deformation from the test. To test for failure, a load is applied to the limb until it breaks, thus determining strength limits. Cyclic loads determine the lifetime of the device. A load is applied two million times at one load per second, thus simulating five years of use. Experimental prosthetic limbs are usually considered feasible if they survive 250,000 cycles.

The Future

Many experts are optimistic about the future of prosthetic limbs; at least, most agree that there is vast room for improvement. A prosthetic limb is a sophisticated device, yet it is preferably simple in design. The ideal prosthetic device should be easy for the patient to learn how to use, require little repair or replacement, be comfortable and easy to put on and take off, be strong yet lightweight, be easily adjustable, look natural, and be easy to clean. Research aims for this admittedly utopian prosthetic device, and strides have been made in recent years.

Carbon fiber is a strong, lightweight material that is now being used as the basis of endoskeletal parts (the pylons). In the past it was used primarily for reinforcement of exoskeletal protheses, but some experts claim that carbon fiber is a superior material that will eventually replace metals in pylons.

One researcher has developed software that superimposes a grid on a CAT scan of the stump to indicate the amount of pressure the soft tissue can handle with a minimum amount of pain. By viewing the computer model, the prosthetist can design a socket that minimizes the amount of soft tissue that is displaced.

An experimental pressure-sensitive foot is also in the works. Pressure transducers located in the feet send signals to electrodes set in the stump. The nerves can then receive and interpret the signals accordingly. Amputees can walk more normally on the new device because they can feel the ground and adjust their gait appropriately.

Another revolutionary development in the area of prosthetic legs is the introduction of an above-knee prosthesis that has a built-in computer that can be programmed to match the patient's gait, thereby making walking more automatic and natural.

Where To Learn More


Forester, C. S. Flying Colours. Little, Brown, 1938.

Sabolich, John. You 're Not Alone. Sabolich Prosthetic and Research Center, 1991.

Shurr, Donald G. and Thomas M. Cook. Pros the tics and Orthotics. Appleton and Lange, 1990.


Abrahams, Andrew. "An Amazing 'Foot' Puts Legless Vet Bill Demby Back in the Ballgame," People Weekly. April 4, 1988, p. 119.

Hart, Lianne. "Lives that Are Whole," Life. December, 1988, pp. 112-116.

Heilman, Joan Rattner. "Medical Miracles," Redbook. May, 1991, p. 124+.

"A Helping Hand for Christa," National Geographic World. November, 1986, p. 10.

"Off to a Running Start," National Geographic World. August, 1991, pp. 29-31.

Rose Secrest

User Contributions:

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Apr 1, 2006 @ 11:11 am
The earliest know form of an artificial limb was 500 BC According to Herodotus a prisoner escaped from his chains by cutting of his leg. He later replaced it with wood. In 1529 a surgeon named Ambroise Pare started making artificial limbs. In 1836, Dubois L Parmelee added the socket to the limb. In 1898, Dr. Vanghetti made an artificial limb that could move using muscle contrast. In 1946 there was a really big change to the artificial limb. The suction sock was created in a Californian University. In 1975 Ysidro M. Martinez who had an artificial limb himself created a lighter limb to take off some of the pressure.

A person who is born missing a limb or looses one during an accident or war might require an artificial limb. Most people with artificial limbs are war veterinarians. The goal of an artificial limb is to live your life the way you lived it before you lost the limb. You can get a limb to fit your hobbies. For example there are special limbs for swimmers, dancers and other athletes. There is even a limb that looks real for people who are concerned about the looks. But learning how to use an artificial limb is not easy. It takes lessons, hard work and a lot of practice. They also have to learn exercises that help them strengthen their muscles that are use to work the artificial limb. The lessons themselves take 18-20 weeks. Most of this is just learning how to walk. Some focus on sitting down and getting up and how to fall down and get up safely. The lessons for people who have lost arms are not so long and mainly focus on being able to grip objects with their new hand. It is important to care for artificial limbs for the amputee’s own health and safety. The sockets need washing every day and the amputees need to go to the hospital for check ups to make sure nothing is broken.

Most doctors say that in the future there will be lots of room for improvement on the artificial limb. They want the limb to be easy to learn how to walk in, less need for repair and replacement, comfortable, strong, light and real looking.
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Aug 11, 2009 @ 8:20 pm
I'm an left above knee amputee and have an artificial limb looses it during a vehicular accident and when i have browse this site I have known that I can be benefited with the information , In this regard may you facilitate the a company for me to have it free since I dont have the financial capacity to purchase one and the prices here in the philippines is exhorbitant and does not have such like the foam cover that look like my skin and it is not made out of that as what has being published in the internet Plastic pieces—including soft-foam pieces used as liners or padding—are made in the usual plastic forming methods. These include vacuum-forming (see no. 3 above), injecting molding—forcing molten plastic into a mold and letting it cool—and extruding, in which the plastic is pulled through a shaped die. Pylons that are made of titanium or aluminum can be die-cast; in this process, liquid metal is forced into a steel die of the proper shape.

very truly yours,

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Aug 19, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
I have a replacement limb, but it is not the whole arm, just the Humerus bone was replace due to Cancer.
I have an x-ray of the limb which they said is made out of titanium alloy.

I have been trying to find info on this, if and when does it need to be replaced or does it rust
or what, cause sometimes I get some pain in it.
It was attached from my shoulder bone to my elbow.

please advise and thanks
Paul templeman
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Dec 19, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
I work with an elderly gentleman who has for many years who has an artificial leg .
For many years all was going well until the nhs said he had to have a new leg.
Unfortunately it has caused so many problems.
He has to wear a belt , one that tightens also one that was Velcro and neither has been successful.
Apart from this he also is diagnosed alzehemiers.
Can you please help or if you require further information please e mail ASAP as he has another visit /fitting this Wednesday at his local hospital.
Many thanks
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Apr 10, 2018 @ 6:06 am
Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank Thank
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Apr 10, 2018 @ 6:06 am
I have a sad point too make. I don't understand how to kill myself
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Apr 10, 2018 @ 6:06 am
Why? That is very serious! You must tell someone! Please!
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Apr 13, 2018 @ 12:12 pm
I dont under stand how to live myself or kill myself im sad
Mr Jay
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Apr 20, 2018 @ 2:02 am
Do you know? These 10 human body parts can be replaced.

1.Heart muscles
2.Ears :
You can print nearly anything of late, for example, figures, usable plastic parts and different systems. All the more as of late however, we would now be able to print prosthetic appendages and ears — ears with superhuman hearing, may I include. From this hospital its possible www pointernational in

Molds were developed by utilizing photogrammetry to delineate pictures of people's ears. The form itself took a little more than a day to be built, just taking a couple of minutes to be infused with living cells previously being transplanted. The loop like reception apparatuses printed into the ear interfaces with a "cochlear-like terminal" which can get frequencies outside of the human scope of hearing.

3.Bones :
As a kid, you're fortunate on the off chance that you endure to your twenties without breaking any bones. After your twenties, bones take a ton longer to mend because of specific components, as per the National Center for Biotechnology.

"Recuperating forms are as of now progressing in the kid at the season of the break. In the grown-up, these elements must be stirred, prompting the slower recuperating time in the grown-up." you must contact this

Fortunately, we have a cure. "Injectable bone", which is a glue like substance produced using calcium phosphate or calcium sulfate, can repair minor cracks and fill in missing bits of bone by being infused into the influenced region.

4.Pancreas :
The pancreas is a standout amongst the most imperative organs in our body (other than the heart and the mind). It's responsible for managing absorption and glucose levels. An Artificial Pancreas Device System (APDS) copies the elements of the pancreas; it's likewise arranged into two separate gadgets (a consistent glucose observing framework or potentially an insulin mixture pump).

The US Food and Drug Administration recommends that in the future, an APDS won't just track glucose levels in the body yet additionally naturally change the conveyance of insulin to diminish high blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia) and limit the rate of low blood glucose (hypoglycaemia) with practically no contribution from the patient." as per my knowledge p & o international in india are very helpful in all kind of matter for artificial body parts.

4.Limbs :
Appendages are normally supplanted body parts. We've all observed the touching story of a trooper returning home with a missing appendage, or a normal individual accepting another opportunity at strolling again through advancements like prostheses. ( p & o international is the best in all this matter )

Mechanical pioneer Hugh Herr looks to nature while making bionic appendages. His manifestations utilize complex calculations to reenact and afterward copy the correct elements of each fiber of muscle and ligament at various velocities and pressures.

Hands, much like arms and legs, are replaceable too. Specialists from the University of Chicago are building up a prosthesis which can send and get signs to the cerebrum through an immediate interface. This enables the wearer to have an apparent feeling of touch.

"It is presently conceivable to reestablish hand work in influenced patients; yet, the signs, points of interest, and constraints for either hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting must be deliberately thought about relying upon the level and degree of the appendage misfortune," as indicated by the NCBI. ( why dont you visit www pointernational in )

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