Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester
that are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels
are often sold in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are always
the largest of the three towels. Bath towels are generally woven with a
loop or pile that is soft and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water
away from the body. Special looms called dobby looms are used to make this
Bath towels are generally of a single color but may be decorated with
machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns (pre-determined
computer program driven designs) or even printed in stripes. Since towels
are exposed to much water and are washed on hot-water wash settings more
frequently than other textiles, printed towels may not retain their
pattern very long. Most towels have a two selvage edges or finished woven
edges along the sides and are hemmed (cut and sewn down) at the top and
bottom. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the
toweling, weave the towels, dye them, cut and sew hems, and ready them for
distribution. Others purchase the yarn already spun from other wholesalers
and only weave the toweling.
Until the early nineteenth century, when the textile industry mechanized,
bath toweling could be relatively expensive to purchase or time-consuming
to create. There is some question how important these sanitary linens were
for the average person—after all, bathing was not nearly as
universally popular 200 years ago as it is today! Most nine-teenth century
toweling that survives is, indeed, toweling probably used behind or on top
of the washstand, the piece of furniture that held the wash basin and
pitcher with water in the days before indoor plumbing. Much of this
toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven natural linen. Fancy ladies'
magazines and mail order catalogs feature fancier jacquard-woven colored
linen patterns (particularly red and white) but these were more likely to
be hand and face cloths. It wasn't until the 1890s that the more
soft and absorbent terry cloth replaced the plain linen toweling.
As the cotton industry mechanized in this country, toweling material could
be purchased by the yard as well as in finished goods. By the 1890s, an
American house-wife could go to the general store or order through the
mail either woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling (terry cloth) or
could purchase terry cloth by the 'y'ard, cut it to the
appropriate bath towel size her family liked, and hem it herself. A
variety of toweling was available—diaper weaves, huck-abacks,
"crash" toweling—primarily in cotton as linen was not
commercially woven in this country in great quantity by the 1890s. Weaving
factories began mass production of terry cloth towels by the end of the
nine-teenth century and have been producing them in similar fashion ever
Raw materials include cotton or cotton and polyester, depending on the
composition of the towel in production. Some towel factories purchase the
primary raw material, cotton, in 500 lb (227 kg) bales and spin them
with synthetics in order to get the type of yarn they need for
production. However, some factories purchase the yarn from a supplier.
These yarn spools of cotton-polyester blend yarn is purchased in huge
quantities in 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) spools of yarn. A single spool of yarn
unravels to 66,000 yd (60,324 m) of thread.
Yarn must be coated or sized in order for it to be woven more easily. One
such industry coating contains PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are
generally used to whiten a towel before dyeing it (if it is to be dyed).
Again, these bleaches vary depending on the manufacturer, but may include
as many as 10 ingredients (some of them proprietary) including hydrogen
peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to remain white, an
optical brightener to make the white look brighter. Synthetic or chemical
dyes, of complex composition, which make towels both colorfast and bright,
may also be used.
Most towels are not specially designed in complex patterns. The vast
majority is simple terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn
edges at top and bottom. Sizes vary as do colors depending on the order.
Increasingly, white or stock towels are sent to wholesalers or others to
decorate with computer-driven embroidery or decorate with applique fabric
or decoration. This occurs in a different location and is often done by
1 As mentioned above, some factories spin their own yarn for bath
towels. If this is done at the factory, the manufacturer receives huge
500 lb (227 kg) bales of either high or "middling grade"
(of medium quality) cotton for conversion into yarn (quality depends on
the manufacturer and quality of the towel in production). These bales
are broken open by an automated Uniflock machine that nips a bit off the
top of each bale, opens it up and then lays it down. The Uniflock
opening machine blends the cotton fibers together by repeatedly beating
it so impurities fall out or are filtered out (these bales contain many
impurities within the raw cotton). The more pure fibers are blown
through tubes to a mixing unit where the cotton is blended together
before they are spun. Higher quality towels use cotton with fibers that
are blended together three times before spinning. In some factories, the
cotton is blended with polyester during this blending process.
2 The mixed fibers are then blown through tubes to carding machines
where revolving cylinders with wire teeth are used to straighten the
fibers and continue to remove impurities before spinning. The cotton
fibers, while not yet yarn, are shaping up into parallel fibers in
preparation for spinning.
3 These parallel fibers are then condensed into a sliver—a
twisted rope of cotton fibers. These slivers are sent into another
machine in which they are blended again and sent between other rollers
for straightening. The ultimate goal is long, straight, parallel fibers
because they produce stronger yarns. (Stronger yarns require less
twisting which also produces strong yarns but makes them less soft and
absorbent.) The fibers are wound on a large roll and sent on a cart and
fed into the combing machine.
4 Fibers are combed here, further straightening the fibers with a finer
set of wire teeth than used on the carding machine. Combing removes the
shorter fibers, which are coarser and woollier, leaving the finer,
longer, silkier cotton fibers for spinning into yarn. Once combed, the
fibers are formed into a twisted rope sliver again.
5 The slivers travel to roving machines where the fibers are further
twisted and straightened and formed into rovings. The roving frame also
slightly twists the fibers. The result is a long roving of cotton, which
is then wound onto bobbins in the final step before spinning.
6 Now the roving is ready for spinning. The bobbin is spun on a
ring-spinning machine, which mechanically draws out or pulls the cotton
roving out into a single strand. The fibers essentially catch one
another to form one continuous thread and twists the thread slightly as
it is pulled or
spun. Once the yarn is spun, it is automatically wound on large wheels
that resemble rounds of cheese when full of thread.
Once the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up
reel. It is then transported to bleaching as huge rolls of fabric
and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals such as
hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary
ingredients. All toweling must be dyed pure white before it is
dyed any color.
7 Warp is longitudinal threads in a piece of woven material that are
tightly stretched or warped on a beam. Latitudinal threads called weft
or filler are passed under and over the warp to form the fabric. The
large spools of just-spun cotton are ready to be warped or wound on a
beam that will be inserted into the loom for weaving. If the yarn is
purchased, the 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) spools are readied for warping. A warping
beam is then warped in which threads are anchored and wrapped to a large
beam in hundreds of parallel rows. Different towel widths require
different numbers of warp threads.
8 These huge beams, full of wrapped warp threads, are placed into a rack
that holds up to 12 beams and sized in preparation for weaving. The
threads must be sized or stiffened to make the piece easier to weave.
PVA starch, urea, and wax are rolled onto and pressed into the yarn. The
threads are then run over drying cans—Teflon-coated cans with
steam heat emanating from with-in. This helps to dry the warp threads
quickly. (1,000 warp ends are pulled over nine cans to dry.) These
beams, with coated threads, are now sent to the looms.
9 The beams are picked up by a pallet jack or hydraulic lift truck and
transported to looms. These looms vary in width but may be as narrow as
85 in (216 cm) or as wide as 153 in (389 cm). (Not surprisingly, the
wider the loom, the slower the weaving as it takes longer for weft
threads to cross the warp.) The beams are lifted onto the looms
mechanically with a warp jack, which can bear the weight and size of the
10 Towels are woven on dobby looms, meaning each loom has two sets or
warp and thus two warp beams—one warp is called the ground warp
and forms the body of the towel and the other is called the pile warp
and it produces the terry pile or loop. Each set of warp threads is
carefully fed through a set of metal eyes and is attached to a harness.
(Harnesses are separate, parallel frames that can change in their
vertical relationships to one another.) These harnesses mechanically
raise and lower these warp threads so that the weft or filler can be
passed between them. The intersection of the warp and weft is woven
The filler yarn is programmed so that it is loosely laid into the
woven fabric. When this loose filler is beaten or pressed into the
fabric, the slack is pushed up becoming a little loop.
After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and cut into standardized
Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are truly shot across these
large looms at top-speeds—these towel-making looms may have 18
shuttles fired across the warp from a firing cylinder. One shuttle
follows right behind the next. As soon as the one shuttle shoots
across the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported
back to firing cylinder and is shot across again. A typical
towel-weaving machine has 350 shuttle insertions in a single
minute—nearly six shuttles fired across each second. Thus,
towels are woven very quickly on these large mechanized dobby looms.
In one small towel-making factory, 250 dozen bath towels can be made
in one loom in a single week—and there are 50 looms in the
11 Once the toweling is made (it is one long terry cloth roll and has no
beginning or end), it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then
transported to bleaching as huge rolls of fabric and put into a water
bath with bleaching chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, caustic
defoamers, and other proprietary ingredients. All toweling must be dyed
pure white before it is dyed any color. The wet toweling laden with
chemicals is then subjected to tremendously high temperatures. The heat
makes the chemicals react, bleaching the towel. The roll is then washed
at least once and as many as three times in a large washer
to get all chemicals out of the toweling. The toweling is dried, and if
it is to remain white toweling, it is ready to be cut at the top and
bottom, lock-stitched sewn, and have a label attached (all of this is
done with one machine).
12 If it is to be dyed, the large, dried uncut rolls are taken to large
vats of chemical dyes, which have proven over time to provide colorfast
toweling after extensive residential laundering. After being immersed in
the vat, the toweling is removed and pressed between two heavy rollers
which forces the dye down into the toweling. A thorough steaming sets
the color. The toweling is again steam-dried, fluffed in the drying
process, and then the dyed towels are ready for cutting, hemming, and
Cutting, folding, and packaging
13 Final visual inspection of the cut and hemmed towels occurs and they
are handfolded and conveyed to packaging, where automatic packaging
equipment forms a bag around the towels and UPC labels are attached to
the bags. These packaged towels are sent to the stock room, awaiting
transport out of the plant.
Towels are rigorously checked for quality control throughout the
production process. If yarn is purchased, it is randomly checked for
weight and must be the standard established by the company (lighter yarn
spools indicate the yarn is thinner than desired and may not make as
sturdy toweling). Bleach and dye vats are periodically checked for
appropriate chemical constitution.
During the weaving process, some companies pass the cloth over a lighted
inspection table. Here the weavers and quality inspectors monitor the
towel for weaving imperfections. Slightly unevenly woven towels may be
straightened out and touched up. But those that cannot may be labeled
"seconds" or imperfect or completely rejected by the
company. As in all aspects of the process, visual checks are a key to
quality control—all involved in the process understand minimum
standards and monitor the product at all times.
Potentially harmful byproducts are often mixed in the water that is used
to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric. Particularly, the bleaching
process includes ingredients (peroxides and other caustics) that cannot be
discharged untreated into any water supply. Many toweling factories run
their own water treatment plants to insure that the water the plant
discharges meets minimum standards for pH, temperature, etc.
Where to Learn More
Montgomery Ward & Co.
Spring and Summer 1895 Catalogue and Buyer's Guide.
NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1969.
The Warp: A Weaving Reference.
Ashville, NC: Lark Books, 1991.
Fieldcrest Cannon. "The Making of Royal Velvet Towels."
Unpublished script for a video on towel production. Kannapolis, NC,
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